How To Start A Fish Farm Business In Nigeria (Full Guide)

Fish farming is one of the most lucrative business in Nigeria, many people are intending to start a fishery but are still are still confused on how to start a fish farm business, if you fall into this category then you have come to the right place.

Their are different species of fish and they are in high demand across different parts of Nigeria. Due to civilization, there have been a drastic reduction of fishermen in Nigeria and a lot of people are craving for different deliciaces made with fish and due to the scarcity of fishermen starting a fishery farm in Nigeria will be one of the most profitable business you can go into.

Without wasting time, let’s see the basic things you need to start a fish farm in Nigeria

Why You Should Start A Fish Farm

  • Fishermen are gradually getting extinct hence the market isn’t crowded which gives you a higher chance of dominating the market.
  • There is a high demand for fishes in Nigeria from different spheres of life which includes restaurants, eateries, food industries etc.
  • Thereare different species of fishes hence you can choose the particular one in which you want to rear from the varities.
  • Fishes do not cause any environmental problems, you don’t have to worry about their waste products and poultry farms aren’t limited to a particular type of environment unlike poultry farms
  • You don’t have to wait till eternity for you to make a sale; fishes mature quickly hence you don’t have to worry about waiting for too long before making sales.
  • Fish farming is easy to start up and doesn’t require too much capital, this is one of the few businesses you can go into without getting worried about money.
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Species Of Fishes You Can Rear

  • Catfish:
    Catfishes are one of the most demanded specie of fish in Nigeria. It’s highly demanded because of the possibilities of cooking different deleciases with it. The value for catfishes are high in the agricultural industry that’s why many farmers choose to rear them.
  • Tilapia:
    Tilapia is one of the fishes which you can cultivate without stress. Tilapias are widely used to make the Nigerian stew deliciaces and doesn’t take time before maturing. Tilapias doesn’t release any toxic waste to the environment because their bye-products remains in the water and isn’t spread to the environment.
  • Marckerel:
    1. The demand for mackerel fishes is increasing rapidly but mostly ignored by farmers. Rearing marckerels will make you dominate the market because of its scarcity in Nigeria fishery farms.


    1. The only limitations to rearing mackerel fishes is that they only survive in salty water hence you have to make provisions for that.

Basic Things To Do Before Starting A Fish Farm

There are basic things you should put in mind while planning to start a fishery, below are the basic things you need to put in place before starting a fish farm business

    • Get a suitable environment/location:  Getting a good environment as a site for your pond should be a priority, not all environments are suitable for fishes as there are some climates and weather fishes can’t survive in. Getting a suitable location to start your fish farm will be of advantage to you, choosing the amount of the plot of land you need depends on how large you want the farm to be.
    • Get a constant source of water:
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Fishes are aquatic animals hence water is the most important thing they need to survive.

Getting an unobstructed supply of water for your fish should be your priority. There are different measures to put in place for you to get a constant supply of water for your fish farm but i recommend you to get a borehole as your main source of water for your borehole.
Getting a borehole will save you from the inconstant supply of water from the water board, getting a borehole will also help you to get a reservoir as you can construct an overhead tank attached to the borehole.

  • Construct ponds: There can’t be a fishery without a pond, while preparing to start a fish farm, most of your capital should go into the construction of ponds.
    There are diverse types of ponds to choose from; the natural and constructed one.
    The natural pond is a pond dug on the ground, it doesn’t require any form of construction while the constructed/artificial ponds are the ones constructed, it can be made from cements or plastic tanks.
  • Choose The Specie Of Fish To Farm: Choosing the specie of fish you want to rear is another decision you need to take before setting up a fish farm.
    There are many species of fishes to choose from and rearing all of them is virtually impossible hence you have to pick out the specie(s) you’d want to rear.
  • Get Healthy juveniles: Juveniles are fingerlings in which you want to rear.
    There are different juveniles distributors around the country, this are people who specializes in hatching fingerlings, but before buying the juveniles, make sure you are buying them from a trusted farm. Getting healthy juveniles will save you from going through a lot of stress which includes the fishes getting ill.
  • Draft out marketing strategies: For you to be successful in fish farming, you have to draft out your marketing strategies.
    One of the best strategy you can adopt is analysing your competitors farm, know their strength and weaknesses then give the value in which they to your customers. 
  • Register For a training: No man is an island of himself. Getting involved in a course before you start a fishery will save you from damages a lot of farmers go through while starting their farms.
    There are different training and online courses you can get enrolled into.
    Getting yourself an experienced trainer/mentor will also give you a heads up on how the market works and will help you in dominating the market.

    How Much Do I Need To Start A Fish Farm?

    Starting a fish farm isn’t as expensive as people thought it would be.
    Their isn’t a specific amount of money you need to start a fishery as it varies on the species, location and amount of fishes you’d like to rear. Starting a savings account would be a great decision so you wouldn’t be caught by surprise, alternatively you can request for a loan.

    What Kind Of Feed Should Be Given To Fishes?

    There are basically three types of feeding techniques used for fishes which are:

    • Supplementary feeds
    • Natural feeds
    • Complete feeds
    1. Supplementary feeds: As the name implies; supplementary feeding is a process whereby you feed your fishes with the remains of agricultural products such as rice brain popularly known as rice brains, wheat chaff, bone powder, animal blood etc.
    2. Natural feeds: Natural feeds are foods found in the pond without you putting it in their, this technique of feeding mostly occur in the natural pond. These foods includes worms, snails, insects etc.
    3. Complete feeds:This mode of feeding is a process whereby you mix different substances to make a feed for the fishes. This mode of feeding is expensive and quite difficult to make.

    However, fishes differ in species hence their feeds isn’t limited to a specific type.
    Below are the various kinds of feeds in which you can give to fishes while rearing them:

    1. Dry fish Feeds: Dry fish feeds are foods in which different substances are been dried for fishes to consume on, this mode of feeds last longer and are mostly suitable for fishes who live in salty water.
    2. Frozen fish Feeds: Frozen feeds are gotten when fish feeds are frozed. This is a great type of feed because freezing it will also serve as a means of preserving the feed.
    3. Fresh fish Feeds: These are fish feeds that have not gone through any industrial process. This are foods that are gotten naturally without the fisherman or any company production, examples of this kind of fish feeds are mainly vegetables.
    4. Live fish Feeds: Live fish feeds is one of the best way of feeding your fishes. This is when fishes eat living organisms such as worms and insects.
    5. Medicinal fish Feeds: Medicinal fish feeds are feeds given to fishes when they are ill, it can also serve as vaccines to the fishes. While giving the fishes medical feeds, make sure you give the fishes the appropriate amount of feeds prescribed by the vet.

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